Depths of time

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Hutton, with his depths of time-his vision of great crustal changes occurring slowly through unguessable numbers of years-opened the way to Darwin (time is the first requirement of evolution) and also placed emphasis on repetitive processes and a sense that change is largely gradual. In contemporary dress, these concepts are still at odds in geology. Some geologists seem to look upon the rock record as a frieze of catastrophes interspersed with gaps, while flexplek huren almere others prefer to regard everything from rockslides and volcanic eruptions to rifted continents and plate collisions as dramatic passages in a quietly unfolding story. If you grow up in Brooklyn, you are free to form your prejudices where you may. Anita Epstein’s sense of the dynamics of the earth underwent considerable adjustment one night in i959, when she and her husband were on summer field assignment in southwestem Montana. They were there to do geologic mapping and studies in structure and stratigraphy in the Madison Range and the Gallatin Range, where Montana is wrapped around a comer of Yellowstone Park. They lived in a U.S.G.S. house trailer in a grove of aspens on the Blameystone Ranch, a lovely piece of terrain whose absent owner was Emmett J. Culligan, the softener of  flexplek huren amsterdam water. Since joining the Survey, they had worked in Pennsylvania, mapping quadrangles in the region of the Delaware Water Gap, and had spent the winter at headquarters in Washington, and now they were being given a chance to see some geology in a part of the United States where it is particularly visible-in Anita’s words, “where it all hangs out.” The ranch was close by Hebgen Lake, which owed itself to a dam in the valley of the Madison River. The valley ran along the line of a fault that was thought to be inactive until that night. The air was crisp. The moon was full. The day before, a fire watcher in a tower in the Gallatins had become aware of an unnerving silence. The birds were gone, he realized. Birds of every sort had made a wholesale departure from his mountain. It would be noted by others that bears had taken off as well, while bears that remained walked preoccupied in circles.

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